Identities, Diversity, and Inclusion (IDI)

The major interest of the members of the IDI (Identities, Diversity, and Inclusion) group is to understand the structurally embedded struggles for participation and inclusion of individuals and groups in different social contexts. Following the line of critical theory, power and agency are the key notions bringing this group together. Zygmunt Bauman and Ulrich Beck argue that in late or liquid modernity, power works in a more subtle and invisible manner than in early phases of modernity. Thus, in addition to the visible and solid forms of domination or suppression that are at play in this era, we also focus on the normalized structures and discourses of exclusion. These are often taken for granted and therefore difficult to identify, let alone subvert. For example, various participation policies related to emancipation, integration, or belonging, which are assumed to be inclusive, can become sources of exclusion to the very people they profess to include.

The members of the IDI group research these processes and contradictions by considering the levels of policy, interaction, and experiences within the historically informed (discursive) structures in societies. They question the basic assumptions of these (discursive) structures and investigate the interaction between normalized structures and the positions and actions of individuals and groups. They try to discover how individuals participate in various societal fields and negotiate their positions within local, national, and global contexts. Within the IDI group, there are three more specific topics of interest: norms of inclusion, heteronormality, and norms of belonging. Most of IDI members are qualitative researchers (narrative approach and ethnography), some combine this with quantitative methodology. From 2013, dr. Kathy Davis has joined the group as a research fellow.

IDI is coordinated by Halleh Ghorashi (

More information on IDI
Current projects
National and international co-operation
Academic reputation
Group members

Publications (Source: METIS VU)